Wednesday, August 31, 2005

Is valium or xanax alcohol in pill form?

Benzodiazepines: Specific competitors for the binding of l-tryptophan to human serum albumin
W. E. Müller1 and U. Wollert1

(1) Pharmakologisches Institut der Universität Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Straße 67, D-6500 Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany

Received: 24 December 1974 Accepted: 5 February 1975

Summary By means of the gel filtration technique, the effect of nine benzo-diazepine derivates on the binding of l-tryptophan to human serum albumin was investigated. Using equimolar tryptophan and benzodiazepine concentrations, all benzodiazepines with binding constants higher than 104 (M–1), displace l-tryptophan from its binding site to a high degree. The mechanism of the displacement was characterized as a competition for a common binding site. Some of the benzodiazepines displace l-tryptophan to a greater extent than salicylic acid. The benzodiazepines and tryptophan are the only substances known with a high degree of stereospecific binding to human serum albumin. This study shows that there is only one binding site on the human serum albumin molecule, which binds tryptophan and the benzodiazepines in a highly stereospecific manner. Therefore it is concluded that the benzodiazepines and l-tryptophan must have similarities in their molecular structure, so that both can bind to the common binding site in such specific manner. These considerations are discussed in regard to the known influence of benzodiazepine derivatives on the l-tryptophan metabolism in brain. A direct involvement of the reported displacement in the pharmacological actions of the drugs seems not to be relevant because of their small therapeutical plasma levels.

A Drink A Day Keeps Tryptophan Levels High?

Yes it does! Is this the reason so many studies show drinking alcohol daily in moderation is good for you? Probably, but don't wait for the Big Pharma Companies to tell you. This is just one of many drugs (yes alcohol is a drug) that cause an increase in tryptophan in the human brain and body.

Saturday, March 26, 2005


The antidepressant Paxil works just like all other antideperssants acting on a enzyme that regulates the amount of tryptophan in the brain and body. The pharmaceutical companies have made another billion dollar market from nothing but smoke and mirrors.

Antidepressants work the same way!!!! How the drug companies have deceived us about how medications work!

The way antidepressants (AD's) work has long been (supposedly) unknown. I think that most AD's work by altering the tryptophan pathway by inhibiting an enzyme called tryptophan pyrrolase (TP).

Inhibition of rat liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity and elevation of brain tryptophan concentration by acute administration of small doses of antidepressants.

Badawy AA, Evans M.

1 Administration to rats of a 0.5 mg/kg dose of any of 19 antidepressants, but not that of many other drugs, causes a significant inhibition of the total enzyme and apoenzyme activities of liver tryptophan pyrrolase (of 24-48% and 37-65% respectively) and elevates brain tryptophan concentration by 13-66%.

2 When liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity is enhanced by pretreatment with cortisol or haematin, subsequent administration of a 0.5 mg/kg dose of some, but not other, antidepressants causes inhibition, which is weak (up to 38%).

3 This weak inhibition of the enhanced pyrrolase activity together with other pharmacological and physiological factors could explain the time lag between the start of antidepressant medication and the occurrence of a therapeutic response.

4 The cortisol-induced and haematin-activated pyrrolases respond differentially to inhibition by imipramine and amitriptyline, and this may explain the differential response to these two drugs of depressed patients in relation to urinary excretion of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol.

5 The results are discussed in relation to the mechanism of action of antidepressants and the possible involvement of disturbed hepatic tryptophan metabolism in depressive illness.
PMID: 7126996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE



United States Air Force SR-71 (Blackbird) The Lockheed SR71, unofficially known as the Blackbird, is a long-range, advanced, strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed A-12 and YF-12A aircraft by Lockheed's Skunkworks, which was also responsible for the U-2 and many other advanced aircraft.. The first flight of an SR-71 took place on December 22, 1964, and the first SR-71 to enter service was delivered to the 4200th (later, 9th) Strategic Reconnaissance Wing at Beale AFB, California, in January 1966. The U.S. Air Force retired its fleet of SR-71s on January 26, 1990, because of a decreasing defense budget and high costs of operation. The USAF returned the SR-71 to the active Air Force inventory in 1995 and began flying operational missions in January 1997. The planes were permanently retired in 1998.Throughout its nearly 30+ year career, the SR71 remained the world's fastest and highest-flying operational aircraft. From 80,000 feet it could survey 100,000 square miles of Earth's surface per hour. On July 28, 1976, an SR-71 set two world records for its class: an absolute speed record of 2,193.167 miles per hour and an absolute altitude record of 85,068.997 feet. When the SR-71 was retired in 1990, one was flown from Palmdale Airbase to go on exhibit at the Smithsonian Institute's National Air & Space Museum in Washington, D.C., setting a coast-to-coast speed record at an average 2124 miles per hour. The entire trip took only 68 minutes.On March 21, 1968 Major (later General) Jerome F. O'Malley and Major Edward D. Payne made the first operational SR-71 sortie. During its career, this aircraft accumulated 2,981 flying hours and flew 942 total sorties (more than any other SR-71), including 257 operational missions, from Beale AFB, California; Palmdale, California; Kadena Air Base, Okinawa and RAF (Base) Mildenhall, England. The aircraft was flown to the United States Air Force Museum in March 1990.Thirty-two planes were built. Of these, 12 were lost in flight accidents but all crews ejected safely.The original designation for the aircraft was the RS-71. However when the aircraft was announced by Lyndon B. Johnson on February 29. 1964, Johnson accidentally switched the letters for the name of the aircraft, which forced Lockheed to instantly change the name of the aircraft.Similar to the SR-71 were the A-11 and A-12 which were prototypes for the Blackbird, and the YF-12 which was an attempt to convert the SR71 into a long range fighter.General characteristics
Span: 55 ft. 7 in.
Length: 107 ft. 5 in.
Height: 18 ft. 6 in.
Weight: 170,000 lbs. loaded
Armament: None
Engines: Two Pratt and Whitney J58s of 32,500 pounds-thrust each with afterburner
Crew: Two
Maximum speed: greater than 2,000 mph.
Range: greater than 2,900 miles
Service Ceiling: greater than 85,000 feet
Total Number Built: 32